Efectividad del extracto etanólico de Lippia palmeri Wats para el manejo de Fusarium spp. en semillas de garbanzo / Effectiveness of ethanolic extract of Lippia palmeri Wats for the management of Fusarium spp. in chickpea sedes / Efetividade do extrato etanólico de Lippia palmeri Wats no manejo de Fusarium spp. em sementes de grão de bico

Mirella Romero-Bastidas, Juan José Reyes-Perez, Esli Alexis Mayer-Felix, José Saúl Hernandez-Rubio, Pablo Misael Arce-Amezquita, Luis Guillermo Hernandez-Montiel

Resumen


Resumen

El garbanzo es un cultivo de importancia mundial debido a su valor nutricional, sin embargo, la cosecha se ve afectada por enfermedades en semillas y raíz ocasionadas por Fusarium spp., y para su control se aplican fungicidas sintéticos, por lo que los productos naturales basados en extractos de plantas pueden ser una opción para el manejo sustentable de enfermedades de este cultivo. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la eficiencia in vitro e in vivo del extracto etanólico de Lippia palmeri para el control de Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani en semillas de garbanzo. Al medio PDA se le añadió 500, 1000 y 2000 ppm del extracto etanólico de L. palmeri más un disco de agar de cada patógeno y se midió la inhibición del crecimiento micelial. Semillas de garbanzo fueron sumergidas en cada concentración de L. palmeri por cinco y 10 min, posteriormente, cada semilla se inoculó con F. oxysporum y F. solani y se determinó la incidencia de la enfermedad y el número de semillas germinadas. Las tres concentraciones de L. palmeri inhibieron in vitro a ambos patógenos. En las semillas, el extracto etanólico de L. palmeri disminuyó la incidencia de F. solani y mantuvo por encima del 80 % la germinación. Para F. oxysporum solo la dosis más alta del extracto etanólico y el mayor tiempo de exposición disminuyó 20 % la incidencia y la germinación fue menor de 25 %. El extracto etanólico de L. palmeri puede ser una opción para disminuir enfermedades ocasionas por hongos fitopatógenos del suelo en semillas de garbanzo.

Abstract

Chickpea is a crop of world importance due to its nutritional value; however, seed and root diseases caused by Fusarium spp affect the harvest and for its control, synthetic fungicides are applied; nevertheless, natural products based on plant extracts may be an option for the sustainable management of this crop diseases. The objective of this research was to determine the in vitro and in vivo efficiency of the Lippia palmeri  extract for the control of Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani in chickpea seeds. To PDA media, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm from ethanolic extract of L. palmeri plus one agar disc of each pathogen, and the inhibition of mycelial growth was quantified. Chickpea seeds were submerged in each concentration of L. palmeri for 5 and 10 min, later, each seed was inoculated with F. oxysporum and F. solani and the disease incidence and germinated seeds were determined. The three concentrations of L. palmeri inhibited both phytopathogens in vitro. In the seeds, L. palmeri ethanolic extract decreased the incidence of F. solani and kept germination above 80%. For F.oxysporum only the highest dose of the ethanolic extract and the longest exposure time decreased the incidence by 20 % and germination was less than 25 %.The ethanolic extract of L. palmeri can be an option to decrease diseases caused by phytopathogenic funguses of the soil in chickpea seeds.

Resumo

O grão-de-bico é uma cultura de importância global devido ao seu valor nutricional; no entanto, a cultura é afetada por doenças de sementes e raízes causadas por Fusarium spp. E são aplicados fungicidas sintéticos para controlá-lo, portanto, produtos naturais à base de nos extratos vegetais, podem ser uma opção para o manejo sustentável das doenças dessa cultura. O objetivo desta investigação foi determinar a eficiência in vitro e in vivo do extrato etanólico de Lippia palmeri para o controle de Fusarium oxysporum e F. solani em sementes de grão de bico. Ao meio PDA, 500, 1000 e 2000 ppm do extrato etanólico de L. palmeri mais um disco de ágar de cada patógeno foram adicionados e a inibição do crescimento micelial foi medida. Sementes de grão-de-bico foram imersas em cada concentração de L. palmeri por cinco e 10 minutos e, posteriormente, cada semente foi inoculada com F. oxysporum e F. solani, determinando-se a incidência da doença e o número de sementes germinadas. As três concentrações de L. palmeri inibiram ambos os patógenos in vitro. Nas sementes, o extrato etanólico de L. palmeri diminuiu a incidência de F. solani e manteve a germinação acima de 80 %. Para F. oxysporum, apenas a dose mais alta do extrato etanólico e o maior tempo de exposição diminuíram a incidência em 20 % e a germinação foi menor que 25 %. O extrato etanólico de L. palmeri pode ser uma opção para reduzir doenças causadas por fungos fitopatogênicos do solo em sementes de grão de bico.

Palabras clave


Antifúngicos, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum, germinación / antifungal, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum, germination / antifúngicos, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum, germinação.

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Referencias


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