Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía de la Universidad del Zulia <p>The Journal of the Faculty of Agronomy, Universidad del Zulia is a publication of the Agronomic Research Institute of the Faculty of Agronomy, Universidad del Zulia, published since 1968 and is supported by the Universidad del Zulia, in order to disseminate the results of researchers Venezuelans and other parts of the world, related to the agricultural field. The Rev. Fac. Agron. (LUZ) publishes four issues per year, i. e., every three months, under continuous publication format (rolling pass). , with original and unpublished scientific articles, technical notes, review articles, quick communications, extensive summaries of congresses and scientific meetings related to the agricultural area for the consideration of the Editorial Committee. The journal publishes research products of high scientific quality and promotes the exchange of publications and scientific activity at the agricultural level, in the areas of Plant Production, Animal Production, Food Technology and Socioeconomics. The topics included in these areas are: agrosystem management, environment, agricultural biotechnology, meat science, milk science, rural development, agricultural economics, agricultural entomology, fertilizers, post-harvest physiology, plant physiology, physiology and animal reproduction, pastures and forages, animal and plant genetics and improvement, weeds, animal nutrition, plant pathology, agri-food safety, agri-food systems and soils.</p> en-US (Jorge Vilchez Perozo) (RevicyhLUZ) Fri, 17 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Effect of deficit irrigation on Helianthus annuus L. plants in containers <p>In order to evaluate changes related to plant physiology, infrared thermography has been chosen as a non-invasive complement. The research objective was to analyze the effect of deficit irrigation on <em>Helianthus annuus</em> L. plants in containers by means of IR thermography in a controlled experimental population at the University of Seville. The experiment consisted of three irrigation treatments to sunflower plants; one treatment received full irrigation (C-100) and two treatments received deficit irrigation: 70 % (R-70) and 50 % (R-50). A randomized block design was used. In the initial stage, polystyrene seedling trays of 54 cells (square) were used for the cultivation of sunflowers. The dimension of the trays was 700 x 400 x 70 mm.&nbsp; The cell size was 65 x 70 mm and the capacity was 135 cm<sup>3</sup>.&nbsp;&nbsp; For the development stage, plastic pots with a capacity of 4 L and a dimension of 21 x 16.4 cm were used. The sunflower plants used in this study did not exhibit significant differences in temperature and physiological analyses as a function of the irrigation treatment applied. However, there was a strong tendency for the plants to better resist water stress under a restrictive irrigation of 70%.</p> Jennifer Orejuela-Romero, Juan Chipantiza-Masabanda, Pablo Carrera-Oscullo, Ana Salguero-Cajo Copyright (c) 2023 Jennifer Alexandra Orejuela-Romero, Juan Gabriel Chipantiza-Masabanda, Pablo Danilo Carrera-Oscullo, Ana Ximena Salguero-Cajo Thu, 06 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Productivity and nutritional value of common beans with organic fertilization in Durango, Mexico <p>Biofertilizers help to increase crop yields and nutritional quality, reducing the use of agrochemicals that affect ecosystems and human health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the yield and nutritional value of the Pinto Rarámuri variety bean, under an organic fertilization scheme in rainfed conditions in Durango, Mexico. Sowing was carried out in open fields in Villa Montemorelos, Durango, using a randomized complete block design with six treatments [manure tea (tea), sewage sludge (sludge), super lean (lean), commercial organic fertilizer (foc), chemical fertilizer (fqf) and control] five repetitions, 30 plots and five plants per plot as experimental unit. The variables were: emergence percentage, height and pods per plant, seeds per pod, seed thickness and length, weight of 100 seeds, yield, crude fiber percentage, protein, ash, fat, and nitrogen-free extract. A two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's comparison of means (p ≤ 0.05) were performed. The treatments showed statistical difference, the highest yield and weight of 100 seeds was presented by sludge, fqf and foc; while the highest number of pods and plant height was obtained by sludge&nbsp; and fqf. The lowest yield, pods per plant, seeds per pod and plant height were observed in control. The nutritional value presented statistical equality between treatments. The use of organic fertilization is a sustainable alternative to increase bean productivity in the state of Durango, without disturbing its nutritional quality.</p> Ixchel Ortiz-Sánchez, Erika Gamero-Posada, Cynthia Nava-Berumen, Sonia Valdez-Ortega, Oscar Alaniz-Villanueva Copyright (c) 2023 Ixchel Abby Ortiz-Sánchez, Erika Cecilia Gamero-Posada, Cynthia Adriana Nava-Berumen, Sonia Valdez-Ortega, Oscar Gilberto Alaniz-Villanueva Fri, 21 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Available phosphorus in soil from three sources and their effect on biomass and corn root development <p>Phosphorus deficiency in the country is very common, to overcome the problem high soluble phosphates are applied, the use a less soluble acidulated phosphate rock with sulfuric acid (RFA) is one economical alternative. The partial substitution of sulfuric acid by ammonium thiosulfate in the acidulation process (R30T) has proven feasible. The objective of this study was to prove the effect of these P sources on the maize behavior. Two soils were used a neutral and acidic one. Four doses of P treatments were used: 0, 70, 140 and 210<sup>-1</sup>, in a glasshouse experiment. 35 days after planting plants were harvest and soil and root samples were taken for phosphorus analysis and determination of dry matter, root length (LR) and root volume (VR). Partial substitution of sulfuric acid by ammonium thiosulfate does not affect the quality of the acidulated rock. A close relationship between biomass and P concentration in the corn tops with residual soil P, LR and VR increased with the first increase of soil P, successive increments of P produced a decrease in roots size. The LR and VR relationship with P uptake and biomass was not the same in the two soils, in the acidic soil there was a higher dependence on P uptake than in the neutral soil.</p> Ricardo Ramírez, Omaira Sequeraϯ Copyright (c) 2023 Ricardo Ramírez, Omaira Sequera Fri, 28 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of fungicides used in the management of black Sigatoka in banana cultivation <p>The main phytosanitary problem of commercial bananas is black Sigatoka (BS; <em>Mycosphaerella fijiensis</em>), which causes damage to leaf area, loss of exportable quality, and low yields. The management of BS with mixtures of four systemic fungicides in different combinations in the border and central area of three banana plantations, and its effect on the severity of this disease were evaluated. The study was carried out in Ecuador, province of El Oro, Pasaje canton, at the ‘‘El Playón’’, ‘‘Mega Impulso’’ and ‘‘Lolita’’ farms; in an area of 5 hectares of the Williams cultivar with 10 years of production, 50 plants were selected in the vegetative phase in the borders and center of the plantation, four treatments were evaluated: T1 (Triazole+Amine), T2 (Pyrimethanil+Spiroxamine), T3 (Difenoconazole+Amine) and T4 (Amine+Pyrimethanil) and three replicates, with four applications every 14 days.&nbsp; Severity was assessed for 10 weeks using the Stover scale. The experimental design was a randomized block design and the data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA. The greatest fungicidal effect was achieved in ‘‘El Playón’’, the severity for leaf 4 in the border area was 37.5 % and 38 % in the center.&nbsp; On leaf 5, ‘‘El Playón’’ 55 %, ‘‘Mega Impulso’’ 60 %, and ‘‘Lolita’’ 72.5 % reached a severe value. The highest average number of functional leaves was obtained in ‘‘Mega Impulso’’ and the highest average number of old leaves free of streaks in ‘‘Lolita’’. The fungicides applied controlled BS, due to the low percentages of disease severity.</p> Abrahan Cervantes-Álava, Adriana Sánchez-Urdaneta, Ciolys Colmenares , José Quevedo-Guerrero Copyright (c) 2023 Abrahan Rodolfo Cervantes-Álava, Adriana Beatriz Sánchez-Urdaneta, Ciolys Beatriz Colmenares de Ortega, José Nicasio Quevedo-Guerrero Tue, 23 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Alternative products with insecticidal effect in the control of Aulacaspis tubercularis; Newstead, 1906 (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in mango cultivation <p>The predominant microclimates of the coast and the inter-Andean valleys of Peru have favored the production and export of mango (<em>Mangifera indica</em> L.) to more than 30 countries in the years 2020 - 2021. In this process, phytosanitary support was of vital importance, however, the species <em>Aulacaspis tubercularis</em> Newstead, 1906 (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) is a pest that affects the resulting crop, increasing costs due to cleaning the fruits for marketing. Control with insecticides contaminates the environment; hence the objective of the study was to evaluate alternative products with insecticidal effect and low environmental impact. The use of mineral oil (7.5 mL.L<sup>-1</sup>), azadirachtin (3.2 %, 5 mL.L<sup>-1</sup>), commercial powder detergent (20 g.L<sup>-1</sup>) and potassium soap (10 mL.L<sup>-1</sup>) in the field and laboratory. In the field, 9 trees were sprayed per treatment, every seven days at an interval of 15 days and in the laboratory the individuals per bottle. The four evaluated products had a significant impact on the colonies in the field (95.31 %, 88.89 %, 77.38 % and 68.04 %, respectively) in the first three moments of application. In the laboratory, commercial detergent and 3.2 % azadirachtin exerted high mortality (100 %) on the third day post-application, followed by 100 % mineral oil on the fourth day. The four products evaluated are recommended for the management of <em>A. tubercularis</em>.</p> Yaneth Ramos , Agustina Valverde-Rodríguez, Antonio Cornejo, Fleli Jara Copyright (c) 2023 Yaneth Isabel Ramos Vega, Agustina Valverde-Rodríguez, Antonio Cornejo y Maldonado, Fleli Ricardo Jara Claudio Tue, 23 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Lipid Peroxidation, Proline Content and Soluble Sugars as indicators of Oxidative Stress Tolerance in Some Advanced Durum Wheat Lines (Triticum durum Desf.). <p>Oxidative stress induced by glyphosate is a complex phenomenon caused by an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants in&nbsp;plants cells. The present research was carried out at the field crops institute, Agricultural Experimental Station of Setif (ITGC-AES), to assess the response of some durum wheat <em>(Triticum Durum Desf.) </em>lines exposed to oxidative stress induced by glyphosate herbicide. In the heading stage, a solution of 5 Mm of glyphosate&nbsp; was sprayed on flag leaves, and each measurement was taken 48 hours after the glyphosate application. Lipid peroxidation, free proline and soluble sugars were determined. The results indicated that oxidative stress increased the content of lipid peroxidation, proline, and soluble sugars in flag leaves. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the genotypes tested, the increase in the level of lipid peroxidation is much higher in advanced lines G5 and G3, in which lipid peroxidation and membrane damage are greater. Oxidative damage also increased the proline content in&nbsp;lines G3 and G4, and soluble sugars in line G5, which were showing a high tolerance to the oxidative stress induced.</p> Abdelmalek Oulmi, Sarah Benkadja, Ali Guendouz, Benalia Frih, Amor Mehanni, Samir Selloum Copyright (c) 2023 Abdelmalek Oulmi, Sarah Benkadja, Ali Guendouz, Benalia Frih, Amor Mehanni and Samir Selloum Tue, 23 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative study of biological and metabolic indicators in males and females Pseudocurimata boulengeri of lotic ecosystems <p>With the objective of evaluating different biological and metabolic indicators in males and females <em>Pseudocurimata boulengeri</em> in three ecosystems of Los Ríos, Ecuador, specimens were captured in the areas of Ventana, Quevedo and Buena Fe (60 per area, 180 total), and proceeded to perform the sexing. The following were determined: size, weight, thickness of the head, trunk and tail, as well as the size-weight relationship. Stomasomatic, gonadal, hepatosomatic, vicerosomatic indices and condition factor. Glucose, total protein, cholesterol and triglyceride were also evaluated. A 3×2 factorial arrangement was used. Regression analysis to establish the functional relationship between length and weight. For the morphometric indicators, differences between interactions were shown, although higher values ​​were observed in females regardless of the locality, with a weight of 185 g, a length of 23.43 cm and head thickness that exceeded 6 cm. The biological indices reflected differences between the interactions, thus the hepatosomatic, gonadal, and vicerosomatic indexes were higher for females in the locality of Ventanas with 0.97, 12.76, and 20.04, respectively. For the metabolic indicators, differences were shown between the interactions with greater variability for sex. It was shown that for the morphometric indicators, sex did not prevail. The biological indices were influenced by sex, with superiority for females except the stomasomatic. While metabolic indicators showed variability with respect to areas and sex.</p> Yuniel Méndez-Martínez, Estefanía Pallo-Molina, Angel Fernández-Escobar, Diana Vasco-Mora Copyright (c) 2023 Yuniel Méndez-Martínez, Estefanía Gabriela Pallo-Molina, Ángel Oliverio Fernández-Escobar, Diana Lucia Vasco-Mora Fri, 17 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Surfactant properties and emulsifying activity of the gum exudate of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. <p>Gums exudates are macromolecules consisting of carbohydrates (majority fraction), proteins and lipids (minority fraction), with variable concentrations of minerals, polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins and other bioactive phytochemical compounds. These natural products are used as emulsifying agents in multiple industries. The surfactant properties of a new source of gum exudate produced by <em>Prosopis juliflora</em>&nbsp;(Sw.) DC. were evaluated. Additionally, water-oil dispersions prepared with this natural polymer were tested for their emulsifying capacity and stability. A Du Noüy ring tensiometer was used to determine the amphipathic behavior of the investigated gum. The gum exudate of <em>P. juliflora</em> tested at 0.5 % m/v, decreases the values of surface tension (49.35<sup>-1</sup>) and interfacial tension (12.78<sup>-1</sup>), which evidences the potential emulsifying activity (EA) of this polysaccharide. EA values of 95 % and emulsion stability of 95.8 % were obtained, suggesting that <em>P. juliflora</em> gum contributes to improve the capacity and speed of adsorption of molecules between the dispersed phase and continues to form a stable emulsion. The surfactant and emulsifying activity of the investigated gum is associated with the high protein content (16.89 %) and the presence of methyl groups in its structure. Therefore, the gum exudate of <em>P. juliflora</em> constitutes a promising source of hydrocolloids as an emulsifier that could be evaluated in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, food and even cosmetics. Additionally, it constitutes an unexploited natural resource that would contribute to the development of the South American regional economies where this species grows.</p> Fernando Rincón-Acosta, Miryam Félix López, Ernesto Hurtado, Rocío Guerrero-Castillo, Olga Beltrán Copyright (c) 2023 Fernando Rincón-Acosta, Miryam Elizabeth Félix López, Ernesto Antonio Hurtado, Rocío Guerrero-Castillo, Olga Beltrán Tue, 11 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000