Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía de la Universidad del Zulia <p>The Journal of the Faculty of Agronomy, Universidad del Zulia is a publication of the Agronomic Research Institute of the Faculty of Agronomy, Universidad del Zulia, published since 1968 and is supported by the Universidad del Zulia, in order to disseminate the results of researchers Venezuelans and other parts of the world, related to the agricultural field. The Rev. Fac. Agron. (LUZ) publishes four issues per year, i. e., every three months, under continuous publication format (rolling pass). , with original and unpublished scientific articles, technical notes, review articles, quick communications, extensive summaries of congresses and scientific meetings related to the agricultural area for the consideration of the Editorial Committee. The journal publishes research products of high scientific quality and promotes the exchange of publications and scientific activity at the agricultural level, in the areas of Plant Production, Animal Production, Food Technology and Socioeconomics. The topics included in these areas are: agrosystem management, environment, agricultural biotechnology, meat science, milk science, rural development, agricultural economics, agricultural entomology, fertilizers, post-harvest physiology, plant physiology, physiology and animal reproduction, pastures and forages, animal and plant genetics and improvement, weeds, animal nutrition, plant pathology, agri-food safety, agri-food systems and soils.</p> Universidad del Zulia en-US Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía de la Universidad del Zulia 0378-7818 Molecular variation of lipoxygenase-associated genes in grain of commercial Mexican soybean cultivars <p>Lipoxygenase enzymes encoded by the <em>Lox</em>1, <em>Lox</em>2 and <em>Lox</em>3 genes play a crucial role in soybean grain, particularly in the development of off-flavors. Understanding molecular variation within <em>Lox</em> genes is essential for the improvement of soybean organoleptic traits. This study investigated the genetic variation in the internal regions of the <em>Lox</em>1, <em>Lox</em>2, and <em>Lox</em>3 genes in mature grain of commercially grown soybean cultivars in Mexico. Genomic DNA from a diverse panel of Mexican soybean cultivars was analyzed using resequencing techniques and <em>in-silico</em> analysis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within the <em>Lox</em>1, <em>Lox</em>2, and <em>Lox</em>3 genes were identified and characterized. The findings indicated that <em>Lox</em>3 gene displayed lower genetic variability compared to <em>Lox</em>1 and <em>Lox</em>2 genes, specifically, was identified a total of 26 SNPs in the <em>Lox</em>1 gene, 11 SNPs in the <em>Lox</em>2 gene, and 5 SNPs in the <em>Lox</em>3 gene among the examined cultivars. A non-synonymous SNP variant of the C/C genotype located in exon 6 of the <em>Lox</em>2 gene was associated with a destabilizing effect on the lipoxygenase 2 enzyme in the Guayparime S-10 and Huasteca 300 cultivars. These findings provide insights into the molecular variation of lipoxygenase-associated genes in Mexican soybean cultivars.</p> Mónica López Ana Sifuentes Francisco Paredes Nicolás Maldonado Homar Gill Copyright (c) Monica López Fernández, Ana María Sifuentes Rincón, Francisco Alejandro Paredes Sánchez, Nicolás Maldonado Moreno, Homar Rene Gill Langarica 2024-03-17 2024-03-17 41 2 e244111 e244111 Physical and sensory quality of coffee dried in three prototypes of greenhouse solar dryers <p>Reducing the drying time of coffee without causing negative effects on cup quality has been the subject of several investigations. The objective was to determine the effect of three variants of a greenhouse-type solar dryer prototype on the physical, sensory and microbiological quality of coffee. The solar dryer prototype with three variants, prototype 1 (P1) greenhouse solar dryer, prototype 2 (P2) solar dryer with air extractor and prototype 3 (P3) solar dryer with air extractor and solar powered heaters, was compared to traditional drying (T0) (cement floor). Drying time, physical grain defects, yield, sensory and microbiological quality were evaluated. The best results were obtained in P3 with a drying time of 52 h (2 ¼ days), with dry parchment coffee beans without primary defects, higher yield in exportable gold coffee (83.24 %), sensory profile of 84.25 points qualified as specialty coffee (with Q Premium grade) and better safety than coffee obtained by traditional drying; demonstrating that the greenhouse type solar dryer with air extractor and solar energy heaters is a sustainable alternative to improve the efficiency of coffee drying while preserving its sensory quality, an essential value for producers to achieve better prices.</p> María Huamán-Murillo Shirley Mejía Silvia Murillo-Baca Fortunato Ponce-Rosas Maria Fuentes-Meza Copyright (c) 2024 María de Jesús Huamán-Murillo, Shirley Mayhory Mejía Garcia, Silvia María Murillo-Baca, Fortunato Candelario Ponce-Rosas, Maria Jose Fuentes-Meza 2024-04-09 2024-04-09 41 2 e244112 e244112 Yield of sugar beet with drip irrigation, with Penman’s equation and AquaCrop model <p>It is necessary to estimate sugar beet yield, because studies with this crop demonstrated than in Peruvian coastal zone, could be a profitable crop. The objective of the present experiment was to know if dry matter yield of sugar beet is related with Penman’s equation, or FAO’s AquaCrop model. Experiment was made in a sandy soil, non-salty, calcareous, very poor in organic matter, with drip irrigation in Peruvian northern coast. Four treatments: two, three, four and five plant rows per irrigation drip line, in a completely random design, with four replications were utilized. Calculated fresh matter weighs with AquaCrop were between 15.5 and 24.5 Mg.ha<sup>-1</sup>, very much lesser to real ones (between 67.5 and 103.9 Mg.ha<sup>-1</sup>) hence Aqua Crop model is not effective to estimate yield of sugar beet. It is possible to estimate yield of sugar beet, with Penman’s formula, which varied between 11.40 and 27.96 Mg.ha<sup>-1</sup> dry weight, and the real one was between 13.4 and 21.5 Mg.ha<sup>-1</sup>, with a "Root Mean Square Error" (RMSE) of 3.73.</p> Jorge Pinna Kevin Rivas Copyright (c) 2024 Jorge Pinna Cabrejos, Kevin Rivas Quevedo 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 41 2 e244115 e244115 Physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory characterization of fresh cheese made with the Amazonian plants Mansoa alliacea and Eryngium foetidum in Pastaza, Ecuador <p>Plants have nutritional properties and beneficial effects on health, so fortifying dairy foods with plants from the Ecuadorian Amazon could produce dairy products with high nutritional values and unique aromas and flavors.&nbsp;This study characterized the physicochemical, sensory, and microbiological properties of fresh cheese made from the Amazonian plants: &nbsp;wild garlic (<em>Mansoa alliacea; </em>(Lam.) A.H.Gentr) and culantro (<em>Eryngium foetidum</em> L.).&nbsp;Cheeses were made with both species (dry sample and ethanolic extract) at 5 % and 25 % under a completely randomized experimental design with a 2<sup>3 </sup>&nbsp;factorial arrangement, with three replications and 24 experimental units. The physicochemical properties established in the NTE INEN 1528 Standard (moisture, ash, dry matter, protein, fat, pH, acidity, lactose content, lactic acid, and chloride) were determined in the cheeses.&nbsp;Sensory analysis was performed with an untrained panel. Microbiological quality was assessed in the cheese selected in the preference test, according to the NTE INEN 1528 Standard. The treatments affected ash content (3.20 %), pH (5.95), moisture (55.28 %), total solids (42.20 %), and protein (20.84 %). The cheeses QF7 (dry extract of culantro, 5 %) and QF3 (dry extract of wild garlic, 5 %) presented the highest median acceptance, corresponding to "I like it very much", with QF7 getting the highest acceptance (71 %). The fresh cheese presented high protein, fat, and calcium content, as well as adequate microbiological quality, which characterizes it as a caloric and nutritional food.</p> Janeth Ulloa Manuel Pérez Gretty Ettiene Wilfido Briñez Copyright (c) 2024 Janeth Paulina Ulloa Morejón, Manuel Lázaro Pérez Quintana, Gretty Rosario Ettiene Rojas, Wilfido Briñez 2024-04-19 2024-04-19 41 2 e244113 e244113 Characterization of the physicochemical, bromatological properties, and antioxidant activity of powdered sugarcane bagasse <p>By-products are currently considered important foods for human consumption due to their large contribution of bioactive compounds. The objective of the study was to characterize the physicochemical, bromatological, and antioxidant properties of powdered sugarcane bagasse. To obtain sugarcane bagasse powder (PBCA), samples were collected in three artisanal sugar mills in the Junín canton, province of Manabí. The samples were labeled under the codes; M1, M2, and M3. An analysis of variance and Tukey's test at 5 % significance were applied. Statistical significance was determined between the samples evaluated, the results demonstrated a variation in the physicochemical properties: pH (5.96 ± 0.01 – 7.14 ± 0.05); acidity (0.09 ± 0.00 – 0.37 ± 0.00 %); moisture (5.05 ± 0.32 – 9.80 ± 0.68 %) and ash (1.94 ± 0.00 – 4.47 ± 0.02 %), bromatological: crude fiber (13.85 ± 0.11 – 24.39%); protein (0.16 ± 0.00 – 0.86 ± 0.01 %); dry matter (88.52 ± 3.51 – 94.94 ± 0.32%) and fat (0.09 ± 0.00 – 0.13 ± 0.01%), functional and antioxidant compounds: hemicellulose (25.32 ± 0.79 %); cellulose (17.90 ± 0.05 – 26.83 ± 0.20%); lignin (0.31 ± 0.00 – 0.51 ± 0.00 %); water retention capacity (3.27 ± 0.01 – 4.93 ± 0.19 g H<sub>2</sub>O.g<sup>-1</sup>); antioxidant activity (3.70 ± 0.03 – 9.92 ± 9.12 µmol trolox equivalent.g<sup>-1</sup>) and total phenols (2.19 ± 0.00 – 13.35 ± 0.03 mg gallic acid equivalent.g<sup>-1</sup>). All samples were microbiologically acceptable. PBCA presented nutritional characteristics of importance for the formulation of products for human consumption.</p> Alanís Cabrera Maritza Velásquez José Muñoz Copyright (c) 2024 Alanís Dorissel Cabrera Román, Maritza Elizabeth Velásquez Zambrano, José Patricio Muñoz Murillo 2024-04-19 2024-04-19 41 2 e244114 e244114