Aptitud combinatoria y heterosis para el rendimiento, precocidad y altura en genotipos de maíz amarillo / Combining ability and heterosis for yield, precocity and height in yellow maize genotypes / Aptidão combinatória e heterose para produtividade, precocidade e altura em genótipos de milho amarelo.

Victor Mario García Mora, Julián Chura Chuquija, Julio Torres

Resumen


Resumen

El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la aptitud combinatoria general (ACG), aptitud combinatoria especifica (ACE) y la heterosis en líneas endogámicas de maíz amarillo y sus cruzas para el rendimiento de grano, altura de planta y mazorca y días a la floración masculina y femenina. Seis líneas endogámicas provenientes del CIMMYT, sus cruzamientos directos y cuatro testigos fueron evaluados en la UNALM durante 2016-2018, bajo un diseño de látice 5 x 5 con cuatro repeticiones. Los efectos de ACG y ACE se calcularon con el método II, modelo I de Griffing. La heterosis se midió con base en la media y el mejor parental. El análisis combinado de años mostró significancia (p≤0,01) para: genotipos por años para días a la floración masculina y femenina; ACG por años para días a la floración masculina y ACE por años para días a la floración femenina. Los efectos de ACG para el rendimiento de grano fueron significativos en las líneas CML 229 y CML 428, para altura de planta, mazorca y precocidad, destacó la línea CML 487. El efecto de ACE fue superior en la cruza CML 453 x CML 486 para el carácter rendimiento de grano. Fue mayor la heterosis para el rendimiento de grano en los cruzamientos CML 229 x CML 453 y CML 453 x CML 487. La relación ACG/ACE evidenció efectos de genes aditivos en la altura de plantas, días a la floración masculina y femenina, por tanto, para rendimiento en grano y altura de mazorca gobernaron los efectos no aditivos.

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to determine the general combinatorial aptitude (GCA), specific combinatorial aptitude (SCA) and heterosis in inbred lines of yellow maize and its crosses for, the yield of grain, height of plant and ear and days to male and female flowering. Six inbred lines from CIMMYT, their direct crosses and four controls were evaluated at UNALM during 2016-2018, under a 5 x 5 lattice design with four repetitions. The effects of GCA and SCA were calculated using method II, model I of Griffing. Heterosis was measured based on the mean and best parent. Heterosis was measured based on the mean and best parent. The combined analysis of years showed significance (p ≤ 0.01) in: genotypes by years for days to male and female flowering; GCA for years for days to male flowering and SCA for years for days to female flowering. The effects of ACG for grain yield were significant in lines CML 229 and CML 428, for plant height, precocity, ear and precocity CML 487 line highlighted. The effect of ACE was superior in the cross CML 453 x CML 486 for the grain yield character. Heterosis was higher for the grain yield in the CML 229 x CML 453 and CML 453 x CML 487 crosses. The GCA / SCA relationship evidenced effects of additive genes on plant height, days to male and female flowering, therefore, for grain yield and ear height, non-additive effects governed.

Resumo

O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a aptidão combinatória geral (ACG), aptidão combinatória específica (ACE) e heterose em linhagens de milho amarelo e seus cruzamentos para o rendimento de grãos, altura de planta e espiga e dias para o florescimento masculino e feminino. Seis linhagens consanguíneas do CIMMYT, seus cruzamentos diretos e quatro controles foram avaliados na UNALM durante o período de 2016-2018, sob um design latice 5 x 5 com quatro repetições. Os efeitos de ACG e ACE foram calculados usando o método II, modelo I de Griffing. A heterose foi mensurada com base na média e no melhor progenitor. A análise combinada dos anos mostrou significância (p≤0,01) em: genótipos por ano, durante dias, para floração masculina e feminina; ACG por anos durante dias até a floração masculina e ACE por anos durante dias até a floração feminina. Os efeitos do ACG no rendimento de grãos foram significativos nas linhagens CML 229 e CML 428, destacando-se altura da planta, orelha e precocidade, destacando-se a linha CML 487. O efeito da ECA foi superior no cruzamento CML 453 x CML 486 para o caráter de rendimento de grãos. A heterose foi maior para a produtividade de grãos nos cruzamentos CML 229 x CML 453 e CML 453 x CML 487. A relação ACG / ACE evidenciou efeitos de genes aditivos na altura das plantas, nos dias de floração masculina e feminina, portanto, para o rendimento de grãos e a altura da espiga, os efeitos não aditivos regiam.


Palabras clave


Zea mays, líneas endogámicas, Griffing, efectos genéticos / Zea mays, inbred lines, Griffing, genetic effects / Zea mays, linhas puras, Griffing, efeitos genéticos.

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Referencias


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